The low-fee private schooling sector has been growing at a significant rate in South Africa.
The independent schools have been seen as a solution to the challenges of quality education provision in the country -- bridging the gap for learners from low- to-middle-income families, who may not otherwise afford exorbitant private school fees.
While they have been branded as affordable and low-fee, the Centre for Enterprise and Development (CED) has defined them as mid-fee owing to their for-profit nature.
The organisation believes true low-fee schools are found in the not-for-profit chains such as Basa and Get Ahead.
Here are 2017-18 tuition fees for some of the new and bigger players in the sector. All have a presence in Gauteng -- the province has seen the greatest growth in the independent schools sector:
SPARK Schools = R21,000/year in 2018
It's annual fee is lower than some of its public counterparts.
According to the school's website, in 2018, parents can expect to fork out R21,000 for the year or R2,100 per month over 10 months.
The monthly tuition is the total cost for one's child to attend the school, including daily sport, computer-based practise and enrichment activities during the extended school day.
Additional costs include a nonrefundable registration fee of R400 and a stationery fee of R500.
Its first school was launched in 2013.
PLG Schools = R23,100/year
A Grade R child enrolled at a PLG school in 2017 was expected to pay R23,100 a year, with a monthly fee arrangement of R2,100 over a period of 11 months, according to the school's website.
For a Grade 11 learner, it was R46,200, with a monthly payment arrangement of R4,200.
The aftercare fee is R700 per month.
There is also an annual Sundries levy of R1,350, also payable monthly at R135.
PLG Schools were established in 2014.
Nova Pioneer Schools = R28,120/year
According to its website, a Grade R child enrolled at its Ormonde branch paid R28,120 this academic year. A monthly payment arrangement plan of R2,960 would result in the total fee paid being R32,560.
A Grade 10 learner paid R42,275 per year, with a monthly arrangement of R4,450 totalling R48,950.
The group of schools was established in 2015.
CURRO Holdings = R24,000 to R50,000/year
Established in 2011, fees from the group's schools range between R24,000 and R50,000 per year, according to CED. However, its Meridian schools reportedly charge lower fees.
In 2015, a Grade R learner at Curro Serengeti paid R34,200 per year, according to its website.
The JSE-listed group is considered a dominant and profitable player in this sector, having a footprint in all nine provinces, but mainly in Gauteng.