Catalonia's regional parliament declared independence from Spain on Friday in a disputed vote that is now likely to be declared illegal by Spain's constitutional court.
The independence motion was passed in the 135-strong assembly with 70 votes in favour, 10 against and 2 blank ballots, the assembly's speaker said.
Lawmakers from the Socialist Party, the People's Party (PP) and Ciudadanos had left the chamber before the vote in protest.
Spain's Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy on Friday called for calm in a tweet posted minutes later.
"I ask for calm from all Spaniards. The rule of law will restore legality in Catalonia," Rajoy wrote.