After exchanging rings at the altar, the couple will now ride through Windsor town in an open top Ascot landau for their carriage procession.
The bride - now to be known as the Duchess of Sussex - was escorted down the aisle by the heir to the throne Prince Charles, who stepped in after her own father underwent heart surgery just two days before the wedding.
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The Most Rev Bishop Michael Curry, the first African-American presiding bishop and primate of the Episcopal Church, gave an address titled the Power of Love at the service in St George's Chapel.
Guests including Oprah Winfrey, actor Idris Elba and Earl Spencer, the brother of the groom's mother Diana, Princess of Wales, also attended, as did singer James Blunt and Harry's former girlfriend Chelsey Davy. Other invitees included actor George Clooney and his barrister wife Amal, David and Victoria Beckham, Sir Elton John and tennis champion Serena Williams.
The wedding comes after a whirlwind romance lasting just under two years. Set up by a mutual female friend, Markle and the prince met on a blind date in London in the summer of 2016.
During their engagement interview in November 2017, Markle, who at the time was appearing in the American legal drama Suits, admitted: "I didn't know much about him."
Harry, 33, said he also knew little about his prospective date, but claimed he was "beautifully surprised" when she walked into the room.
After another date, Harry, who is sixth in line to the throne, revealed: "I managed to persuade her to come and join me in Botswana and we – we camped out with each other under the stars. She came and joined me for five days out there, which was absolutely fantastic.
"So, then we were really by ourselves which was crucial to me to make sure we had a chance to get to know each other."
The early months of their relationship were spent flying between the star's former home in Toronto, Canada, where Markle, 36, filmed Suits, and the prince's cottage at Kensington Palace, London.
But Markle, who has also appeared in CSI: Miami, sci-fi show Fringe and movies such as Get Him To The Greek and Horrible Bosses, explained: "We never went longer than two weeks without seeing each other, even though we were obviously doing a long-distance relationship. So ... we made it work."
Harry proposed during a cosy night in over a roast chicken. The prince revealed: "She didn't even let me finish, she said 'Can I say yes, can I say yes?' and then there were hugs."
Markle recalled: "Just a cosy night, it was – what we were doing just roasting chicken and having ...trying to roast a chicken and ... just an amazing surprise.
"It was so sweet and natural and very romantic. He got on one knee."
"The fact that I fell in love with Meghan so incredibly quickly was sort of confirmation to me that all the stars were aligned, that everything was perfect," the prince said.